Although different methods can be used, Coloured Petri nets are well suited to the task, as has been demonstrated in numerous examples [ 29 , 32 — 34 ]. Future in-vehicle software applications will be implemented as multiple components coordinating with each other to achieve the desired software functionality. Only the occurrence of the transitions depend on the value of. Firstly, there are dynamic properties of a protocol that are expected from its correct operation. In addition, closed-form solutions relating the state space size, retransmission limit, and number of segments are found, giving increased confidence that FrTp is error-free, even for configurations where the state explosion problem arises. The state space of a Coloured Petri net is a directed graph with arc labels from BE, where:

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However as the issue with delayed ACKs can be solved with timing constraints, more practical insights into FrTp could be obtained by integrating time into the CPN and conducting performance analysis.

Results from the state space and language analysis have been collected for a range configurations. Di Natale and A. The function LossEnable returns true if a model input configuration variable is set to enable frame loss.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The FF is transmitted and upon receipt the receiver replies flexrqy a FC frame indicating the sender is clear to send the next frames.

Ideally, a formal proof of independence or formal analysis with the assumptions relaxed is required for complete verification of FrTp.


Once the bytes received equals the bytes expected the data can be delivered to the receiver PDU Router. The hierarchy is shown in Figure 8.

Although there are several ambiguities in the text, no significant errors have been identified in the protocol specification in [ autsar ]. It is also desirable that the CPN is easy to maintain e. Size of the data sent atuosar the PDU Router [bytes]. Section 4 introduces CPNs. This includes proving the absence of deadlocks, conformance of the protocol to the service specification, and characterisation of the upper bounds of buffers when a single-protocol data unit is transferred from FrTp sender to receiver.

The formal definition of nonhierarchical CPNs based on [ 6Definition 4.

How FlexRay Works – Part 1 – Sandeep’s Blog on AUTOSAR

A second condition for Valid to be true is. A nondeterministic FSA is a 5-tuple where, we find the following. Hence more concurrent operations are possible, leading to increased number of occurrence sequences auotsar increases as increases as illustrated in the selected state space results in Tables 3 and 4. Finally PDU transmissions in opposite directions are assumed to be independent.

This is because, after the first frame FFthere are no more than CF frames to transmit, resulting in the same protocol behaviour independent of the value of. Kristensen, Coloured Petri Nets: It is an instance on the bus which repeats after a fixed duration.

International Journal of Vehicular Technology

That is, the actions of the sender and receiver are unaffected by the contents of the data fields in each frame. The exception is when frames are delayed in the communication channel and the delivery of the PDU by the sender has been unsuccessful.


This information is used and updated by transitions modelling the generation and reception of frames. A binding element is enabled in a marking if and only if the following two properties are satisfied: Therefore transitions both decrement the count of blocks to be sent and increment the data already sent SentData.

Upon receiving the NACK the sender must retransmit all frames sent but not yet acknowledged. International Journal of Vehicular Technology. Modelling and analysing the optional features is left for future work. By treating the state space as a nondeterministic FSA, as defined in Definition 8where binding elements for the transitions representing the service primitives of interest are mapped to symbols of the alphabet recall that the optional features of changing parameters and cancelling transmissions are not consideredthe service language can be obtained.

How FlexRay Works – Part 1

This is modelled in detail in the GenerateFrame subpage the transition GenerateFrame is a substitution transition, as indicated by the double lines. The first method is identical to ISOwhile the other three are new. Marking should be reached if both sender and receiver have successfully completed the data transfer, fleray is, Confirmation Successful primitive delivered to sender PduR and Indication delivered to receiver PduR: Definitions 1 to 6 are based on Definitions 4.

Formal methods can be applied during various phases of a protocol design: